Technical Notes

Our publications cover a range of topics relating to piezoelectric ceramics, transducers and hydrophones. They are written for readers of differing technical backgrounds and are grouped accordingly.

Piezoelectric Fundamentals

This section provides an introduction to piezoelectric ceramics. It covers the nomenclature common in the industry, equations and material properties useful for characterizing performance. This material is essential reading when designing piezoelectric products or discussing different material types with vendors.


The least technical content can be found here. These articles provide interesting, useful information with simple explanations.  In general, no background knowledge is required.

Application Notes & Publications

This PDF library contains publications from the R&D department. Our research is broad so the papers cover a very wide range of subjects, including properties of various piezoelectric ceramics, hydrophone and sonar applications, smart structures, active vibration control and actuators. These papers tend to be highly technical.